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  1. Reforms of Examination System 1.1 Abstract Examination is a most use method of evaluation with the labeling, grading and failing the students. However, the present examination systems of T.U. have failed to evaluate internal knowledge and ability of the students. This study here has tried to identify major deficits of present examination system in regards to question designing and making, holding examination and managing the results. Finally, this study has recommended some measure to reform the examination system. 1.2 Methodology To achieve the real world factual result of targeted objective of the study, some descriptive and empirical research has held. Descriptive research has adopted to study the situation and events, accumulates factual information and identifying current conditions and practices. The sources of information are journal, newspaper, reports, dissertation and other relevant records and publication including websites. Empirical research has taken to collect opinions and suggestion of various respondents associated with distinct group i.e. administrators, teachers and students. 2 Findings On regards to examination systems of T.U. examination of every level of higher education i.e. Certificate, Bachelor and master are conducted annually by the examination controllers Office. Each level consists of two or three year’s duration. It means there will be only two or three examination during the final certificate or degree is awarded. A student who fails in the first year can still be promoted to the second year. T.U. has a provision for re-examination. A student can appear four to seven times in the subject s/he fails. A student may fulfill the requirement of a degree in a installment (partial) basis in five years period for two years course and seven years for three years course. T.U. has also a provision of private examination to all Nepalese citizens in general subject taught within the institutes of humanities, law and management. There is an examination committee composed of seven members headed by the Registrar with the Controller of Examination as the Ex- office Secretary. Other five members are nominated by the vice chancellor. There is another committee named Question Management Committee composed of two or three teachers with a minimum teaching experience of three to four years. Question papers were prepared by senior teachers with more than five yrs of teaching experience. Teachers are usually asked to prepare two or four sets or question paper. The examination is held in its several subordinate campuses. Because of the high density of students, two or three students have to take examination sitting in a same desk and there lacks a proper supervision. The answer-copies are sent to teachers in an exchange basis. After examining, they are collected and tabulated. Finally, the controller’s office publishes the result through its website. T.U. has just started internal assessment system that weighted twenty percent score. Mark is provided by corresponding teacher examining the internal performance, group performance, regularity and other extra performance and aspects of a student. On the above mentioned present examination systems following weaknesses are found. A There is no guidelines for preparing question papers. Teachers usually follow their own individual plan for preparing question paper. Some teachers often prepare question paper for the level they have not taught. Teachers are usually asked to prepare two to four sets of questions paper and an average of ten days are allowed to prepare the question. The time is not enough for proper justice of the question paper. B The questions are found mostly dealt with theoretical concepts and understanding analysis. Students are protected to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable, however, in the head of question paper it is asked for a practicable answer. There lacks proportionality of weighing the marks to each skill and knowledge. On the other words question paper can not represent the whole course proportionately. C There lacks validity of examination. Two or three students are allowed to take examination sitting in a single desk. There finds lack of supervision. Therefore, there avails discussing, copying, cheating and other unethical behavior of examination. D Sometimes, examination results are found unreliable and biased. The facility to carry the answer-copies to examiners home allowed the result for teacher own-judgment. Lack of rechecking has inspired the examiner for unethical judgment. Fail in proper marking of examination papers has prevented the fair judgment of the students’ achievement. E The collection and tabulation system of result has found weaker. Sometimes there are events of omission or mistyping of score. To control the ethic of data manager for transparent is also another problem. F There finds lack of examining the question paper before examination. Sometimes there is found asked wrong question. The typing of question also found sometime with more errors. G The internal assessment has not adopted scientifically. H Only one examination during the academic year has failed to evaluate the students’ achievement time to time. The installment system of examination has lessened the responsibility of students toward the examination. To sum up, the existing examination system of T.U. is found weaker. It hasn’t become able to catch the true objective of examination. It can be assumed traditional, unscientific, in transparent and having high discretion of teacher. 3 Recommendation The study marked many existing problems related to present examination system of T.U. The research committee has focused on the following recommendation to overcome the problems and reform the examination system. A A standard guideline should be provided to the teacher who prepares question paper. Workshops and short term orientation programme will be beneficial. A regularly and modified question bank system may contribute more for preparing question. B Question should be according to the level of examination and tests students’ originality. There should be made a question paper having more questions assigning low weight for each question which can represent the whole course proportionately. A proper marked of examination paper is essential for judgment of the students’ achievement. There will be better to put alternative questions. C The evaluation criteria should be diversified. Written test would beneficial to evaluate the student’ achievement on theoretical and principle based knowledge, introduction and detail of information about subject matter. For other test there is recommended other measure. Internal assessment will be scientific to evaluate the skill and ability of individual. The teacher can assigned a work of searching our sources, collecting information and materials, writing a report, a general fieldwork and others. The students should be allowed for self-evaluation themselves by discussing the subject matter on current events, situation or condition. Discussion group may of ten to fifteen members. Project work may be supportive to evaluate the students’ real performance in actual or real world. Another alternative will be viva-voce to acquisition of internal skills of students. D There should be the provision of examining answer paper only on office of examination controller within office time. Provision of re-checking should be added. E Some task force for supervising should be formed from the representation of senior teacher and administrator. Subject wise supervisor are more desirable. The system might help to raise the academic standard of T.U. and improve the morale of teachers and students. F In view of present condition of country, if possible a central examination system should be discarded. All subordinates campuses should be given authority to manage the examination activities own selves. However, a high level supervision is a most from center to maintain the standard of examination. To sum up, the present annual examination practice should be discarded. And a systematic semester system should be adopted. At least two examinations in an academic year are essential. A student who fails in first semester, he should be required to appear in all subject of first semester once again. The re-examination or installment basis should be stopped. The provision for private examination should be omitted. The semester system may closer the link among the students, teachers and administrators. It will encourage the students to be responsible for study. It will also able to raise the standard of examination. A student certification system should be introduced that can certify the internal or subjective strength or weakness of student. This reform programme won’t take more expenses. Addition one third of current expenses will be enough. If today we start to reform it just take three to four yrs to easily handicap the reform. So as soon as possible the tasks have to start. Bibek Babu bibekbabu_999@yahoo.com
  2. Water: the true elixir of life There is a common saying, water: the true elixir of life. I strongly agree with this statement. Definitely water is the true elixir of our life for three reasons – it confers life, it beautifies the earth into heaven and it contributes more for construction of modern industrialized world. Water is the primary basis of all life. Every living being needs substantial amounts of water in their body to run their life. Without it all physiological activities such as digestion and circulation become impossible. It is equally necessary for the life and growth of plants and trees. In fact all living beings life has become possible with regular availability of the life giving water. There finds one thing in real world, that makes an earth into heaven, water. Imagine a beautiful sight, where a little stream is flowing down hitting against the rocks of both banks. The stream side where a blanket of trees is cheering, surprisingly, in a shamed-face, to the sun rise. And you are watching the reflection of green forest and golden sun in the surface of water sitting near the other side. You can’t stop your astonishing cheer. If you visit a water lake, you will forget all yours tensions and sorrows and engage yourself in swimming and fishing. In that time do you think to another heaven? Certainly not. Remember! Such beauty and greenery is only possible through water. The flow of water undoubtedly plays a great part to construct the modern and industrialized world that avail rural economy to be improved in various direction. You can make the development of hydroelectric power. You can get cheapest form of internal transportation by boats and barges through cannels and rivers. You can cultivate the land and grow much more foodstuffs. Sometimes water may play a destructive part in some cases such as: landside and wash away the soil. However, the development of civilized forest may beneficial to check such cases of soil erosion. To sum up, water is the most potent and most wonderful thing on the face of the earth. It is the most uncommon and peculiar of liquids with unbounded utilities. Water, thus, considered as the true elixir of life. So I humbly request to all young kind hearts to pay some consideration towards water preservation. Pls.Pls.Pls. think once again your future, your generations' future then get ahead to put hand on hand for the vow of water preservation. Bibek Babu
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