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Gandhiv

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About Gandhiv

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  • First Name:
    Gandhiv
  • Surname:
    Kafle
  • High School:
    Shree Laxmi Secondary School
  • Village/Town:
    Gaikhur-1, Pauwatar
  • District:
    Gorkha
  • Current University/College:
    Institute of Forestry
  • Subject:
    Forestry
  • Town/City:
    Pokhara
  • Place of Birth:
    Gaikhur-1, Gorkha, Nepal
  • Web site:
    http://groups.msn.com/NatureResearchandTrainingCentreNepal
  • Gender:
    Male
  1. BIODIVERSITY OF WETLANDS IN TERAI REGION OF NEPAL: A LITRATURE REVIEW By: Gandhiv Kafle Email: gandhivkafle@hotmail.com 1. Fauna Of the 861 bird species (BCN, 2004) found in Nepal, 193(22.5%) are known to be dependent on wetlands. Of these wetland dependent species, about 187 are known to be dependent on the wetlands of the Terai. 180 species of water birds are reported from Koshi Tappu and the Koshi barrage(IUCN Nepal, 1996).The IUCN Red List of 2003 lists 12 globally threatened species that are wetland dependent, including the Critically Endangered Pink-headed Duck(Rhodonessa caryophyllacea), Endangered Greater Adjutant(Leptoptilos dubius) and Lesser Florican(Sypheotides indica) and Vulnerable Baikal Teal(Anas Formosa), Swamp Francolin(Francolinus gularis), Baer’s Pochard(Aythya baeri), Grey Pelican(Pelecanus philippensis), Sarus Crane(Grus antigone), Indian Skimmer(Rynchops albicollis), Black-necked Crane(Grus nigricollis), Lesser Adjutant(Leptoptilos javanicus) and Band-tailed Fish Eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus)(IUCN Nepal, 2004). The oriental darter that breeds in just 13 countries is a resident breeder in Chitwan, Koshi Tappu and at Ghodaghodi Tal. The spot-billed pelican, a globally threatened bird, is found on a seasonal basis at the Koshi barrage, while the wetlands in Rupandehi and Kapilbastu provide habitat for the Sarus crane (HMGN/MFSC, 2002). The key globally threatened mammals in Nepal that are wetland dependent include the critically endangered pygmy hog(sus salvanius), endangered gangetic river dolphin(Platanista gangetica), wild water buffalo(Bubals bubals), greater one-horned rhinoceros(Rhinoceros unicornis), elephant(Elephas maximus) and tiger(Panthera tigris), Vulnerable Indian smooth-coated otter(Lutrogale perspicillata) and common otter(Lutra lutra), Fishing Cat(Prionailurus viverrinus) and Barasingha(Cervus duvaucelii)(IUCN Nepal, 2004). Thapa (1997) inventoried 5052 species of insects in Nepal. The vulnerable relict Himalayan dragonfly (Epiophlebia laidlawi) is the only globally threatened wetland dependant species known to occur in Nepal. A total of 185 species of fish are found in wetlands of Nepal, out of which 8 are endemic. Shah (1995) has recorded 100 species of reptiles (24 lizards, 14 turtles, 2 crocodiles and 60 snakes) and 43 species of amphibians (one salamander, four toads and 38 frogs) in Nepal. The IUCN Red List includes nine reptilian species including the critically endangered Bengal Roof Turtle (Kachuga kachuga), endangered three striped roof turtle (Kachuga dhongoka), Elongated Tortoise (Indotestuda elongate) and Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), Vulnerable Broad-snouted crocodile (Crocodylus palustris), Crowned River Turtle (Hardella thurjii), Indian Eyed Turtle (Morenia petersi), Black pond turtle (Geoclemys hamiltonii) and Three-keeled Land Tortoise (Melanochelys tricarinata). Of the 20 endemic vertebrate animals found in Nepal, 17- including 8 fish and 9 heterofauna species- are wetland dependant (IUCN Nepal, 2004). 2. Flora Terai wetlands host considerable floral diversity. At least 318 wetland dependent plant species have been recorded here. Twelve of these are floating species, 16 species are submergent, and 290 species are amphibious/emergent. Of the total amphibious species, 254 species are found exclusively in aquatic habitats, 11 species in riverine and ravine forest habitats, 21 species in savannah grasslands, and 42 species on anthropogenic lands. However it must be noted that a large number of species occur in more than one habitat. IUCN Nepal (2004) classifies the vegetation (hydrophytes) of oxbow lakes of Terai into 3 categories. They are floating hydrophytes, submerged hydrophytes and emergent hydrophytes. There are over 12 species of floating hydrophytes, which provide a nesting habitat for birds such as the Pheasant-tailed Jacana, Bronze-winged jacana, and Purple Moorhen (Sankhala, 1990). 16 submerged hydrophytes occur in the oxbow lakes of the Terai which provide food for fish and a habitat for large numbers of invertebrates(especially crustaceans) and some birds such as Pintails(Anas acuta). A total of 290 species of emergent hydrophytes have been reported from the Terai, which provide nesting habitat for bitterns, purple heron, finches; roosts for Rosy Pastor, wagtails, and purple Moorhen and vantage perch for Ringed-tailed Fishing Eagle, Purple Moorhen and kingfishers (Sankhala, 1990). 3. Aquatic invasive species A recent assessment of aquatic invasive species by IUCN Nepal shows that the most common invasive species in the wetlands of eastern Nepal are Ipomoea carnea ssp. Fistulosa, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb and Eichhornia crassipes. They occur extensively in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its surroundings. Mikania micrantha is now seen covering the forest floor and many of the Dalbergia sissoo trees inside the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (IUCN Nepal, 2004).
  2. Dear WNSO Chautari members, It is an invitation for you all to join a newly formed students’ club described below. NATURE RESEARCH AND AWARENESS CLUB NEPAL (NATURE-NEPAL) NATURE-NEPAL IS A CLUB OF NEPALESE FORESTRY STUDENTS AIMING AT CONDUCTING RESEARCH ON FLORA, FAUNA, ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEM AND HUMAN BEINGS AND IMPROVING LIVELIHOODS OF THE MARGINALIZED SECTIONS OF COMMUNITY (POOR, WOMEN, DALIT AND CHILDREN) IN THE CONTEXT OF NEPAL. GOALS: NATURE NEPAL HAS 2 GOALS. 1. CREATING DATABASE ON FLORA, FAUNA, ENVIRONMENT AND ECOSYSTEM 2. SUSTAINING LIVELIHOOD OF MARGINALIZED SECTION OF COMUMUNITY (POOR, WOMEN, DALIT AND SECTION) IN THE CONTEXT OF NEPAL 3. INFORMATION DISSEMINATION OBJECTIVES: 1. TO CONDUCT PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH ON FLORA, FAUNA, ENVIRONMENT AND ECOSYSTEM 2. TO CONDUCT INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES AT GRASS ROOT LEVEL TO INCREASE THE INCOME OF MARGINALIZED SECTIONS OF COMMUNITY 3. TO CONDUCT TRAINING AND AWARENESS PROGRAMMES TO ASSIST THE CAPACITY BUILDING OF MARGINALIZED SECTIONS OF COMMUNITY MEMBERSHIP CURRENTLY, THE VOLUNTEER MEMBERSHIP IS AVAILABLE FREE OF CHARGE. TO BE VOLUNTEER MEMBER OF THIS CLUB, PLEASE SEND YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS TO EMAIL: NATURE-NEPAL@NETSCAPE.NET OTHER MEMBERSHIP WILL BE AVAILABLE SOON. CONTACT: MR. GANDHIV KAFLE COORDINATOR NATURE RESEARCH AND AWARENESS CLUB NEPAL (NATURE-NEPAL) EMAIL: NATURE-NEPAL@NETSCAPE.NET
  3. Effectiveness of root and foliage system of grasses (Napier, Stylo and Molasses) By Gandhiv Kafle A. Napier Pennisetum purpureum Rooting depth 14 to 54 centimetres Root lateral spread 19 to 73 centimetres radial from the clump Height 95-435 cm Ground surface area protected by foliage against direct raindrop effect 3960 to 129067 sq. cm Mean value: 61890 sq. cm Volume of soil bound by roots 16568 to 897053 cu. Cm Mean value: 370980 cu cm Spacing Plain area: 90 cm Sloppy area: 75% of 90 cm = 67.5 cm Quantity of planting material required For single row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 5, 11, 28, 55, 83 and 111 respectively. For double row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 9, 21, 55, 109, 165 and 221 respectively. For triple row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 14, 32, 83, 164, 248 and 332 respectively. Shading distance Depends upon the height of grass and position of sun Taller the grass more is the shade effect. Max. 433 cm shading distance is found for mean height of Napier - 250 cm, when sun makes 60 degree angle with the vertical on the top of grass. B. Stylo Stylosanthes guianensis Rooting depth 24 to 103 centimetres Root lateral spread 25 to 115 centimetres radial Height Foliage creeping on the ground, so no significant height Ground surface area protected by foliage against direct raindrop effect 16293 to 112266 sq. cm Mean value: 51516 sq. cm Volume of soil bound by roots 15933 to 1412617 cu. Cm Mean value: 447663 cu cm Spacing Plain area: 130 cm Sloppy area: 75% of 130 cm = 97.5 cm Quantity of planting material required For single row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 4, 8, 19, 39, 58 and 77 respectively. For double row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 7, 15, 37, 77, 115 and 153 respectively. For triple row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 11, 23, 56, 116, 173 and 230 respectively. Shade effect Creeping foliage, so no shade effect C. Molasses Melinis minutiflora Rooting depth 15 to 27 centimetres Root lateral spread 11 to 30 centimetres radial Height 45 to 117 cm Ground surface area protected by foliage against direct raindrop effect 3740 to 33667 sq. cm Mean value: 21371sq. cm Volume of soil bound by roots 9530 to 78938 cu. Cm Mean value: 37322 cu cm Spacing Plain area: 45 cm Sloppy area: 75% of 45 cm = 33.75 cm Quantity of planting material required For single row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 11, 22, 55, 111, 166 and 222 respectively. For double row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 21, 43, 109, 221, 331 and 443 respectively. For triple row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 32, 65, 164, 332, 497 and 665 respectively. Shade effect Max. 1.5m for mean height 86cm Citation: Kafle, G. (2004) Evaluation of effectiveness of root and foliage system of grasses used in soil conservation in paundi khola watershed of Lamjung district Nepal. Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Pokhara Campus, pokhara, Nepal.
  4. WATERFOWL DIVERSITY OF POKHARA VALLEY KASKI, NEPAL (2001-2004) By: Gandhiv Kafle Abstract Waterfowl survey was conducted in nine lakes of Pokhara valley during 2001-2004 attempting to identify the waterfowls and threats to them existing on the study area. Altogether 31 species of waterfowls were recorded among which Baer's Pochard (Aythya baeri)- a globally threatened bird was found in Phewa lake as migrant. White-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) was also recorded at the bank of Seti River. Siltation, pollution and overgrowth of invasive species were the major threats to the waterfowls in the lakes of Pokhara valley. It is recommended to carry out intensive study of Baer's Pochard and White-rumped vulture in Pokhara valley. Awareness program focusing on the importance of lakes for bird conservation should be conducted in Lekhnath municipality. Local bird watching groups should be formed for better co-ordination and communication at local level. Results Collectively the waterfowl diversity in Pokhara valley has been mentioned in the following table. S. N. Common name Scientific name Remarks 1. Lesser Whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica 2. Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea 3. Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna 4. Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos Very few, only in Phewa lake 5. Gadwall Anas strepera 6. Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 7. Common Teal Anas crecca 8. Northern Pintail Anas acuta 9. Northern Shoveler Anas clypeta 10. Red Crested Pochard Rhodonessa rufina 11. Common Pochard Aythya ferina 12. Ferruginous Pochard Aythya nyroca 13. Baer's Pochard Aythya baeri 3 in Phewa lake 14. Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula 15. Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis Only in Rupa lake 16. White Throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis 17. Common Coot Fulica atra Most abundant 18. Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio 19. Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 20. Greater Painted Snipe Rostratula benghalensis 21. Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis 22. Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 23. Bronze Winged Jacana Metopidius indicus 24. Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 25. Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger 26. Intermediate Egret Mesophoyx intermedia 27. Little Egret Egretta garzetta 28. Great Egret Casmerodius albus 29. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis 30. Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii 31. Red-Wattled Lapwing Vavellus indicus Additional sightings: Three white-rumped vultures (Gyps bengalensis) were observed at the back of Banpale forest of institute of forestry Pokhara along the fertile cultivated land neat the riverbank of Seti River. They were observed on the live branches of Bombax ceiba. The Seti River dips much with rocky slopes on the both sides, where the potential habitats of white rumped vultures occur. Conclusions and recommendations The lakes of Pokhara valley provide good habitat of the waterfowls. Despite the small area, the majority of birds were observed on Khaste, Deepang, Rupa, Gunde, Maidi and Nandi lakes. Globally threatened Bayer's' pochard (Aythta baeri) was observed in Phewa lake in total number three. So a detailed survey of this species is essential. White rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) was found along the Seti riverbank. So an intensive study is recommended to find out its population status, nesting sites and threats in Pokhara valley. Siltation, pollution and overgrowth of invasive species are the major threats. So proper agro-forestry systems and community plantations should be encouraged on the uphill sides and catchment areas of lakes. Moreover awareness program focussing on the importance of lakes for bird conservation should be conducted in Lekhnath municipality. Widening this recommendation, similar awareness programme should be conducted in Ghodaghodi Lake and Jagadispuir reservoir (unprotected Ramsar sites) because of existence of similar types of threats. Local bird watching groups should be formed at local level to create better awareness, we-feeling and co-ordination. Citation: Kafle, G. (2004). Waterfowl Diversity of Pokhara Valley, Kaski, Nepal (2001-2004). Nature Research and Training Club Nepal (Nature-Nepal), Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal.
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